A - a

a   interjection. interjection. Category: Language.

aga   noun. waterhole, a line of mangrove trees hiding a creek. See: wurl billabong; artparak waterhole. Category: Water bodies. Anth: This is said to be a Ngurtikin (Sandy Creek people) word.

agaga   noun. place name on South Goulburn Island, near to Atjayik. Category: Place names.

ajirr   noun. lower flipper and half of one side of muli, the bottom part of the turtle. Category: Reptiles and amphibians. See: muli lower part of turtle; atjirr region name.

ajirrik   part. perhaps, might. Yanat ajirrik inypaniyarrun inypanilalku. ‘He might follow and spear it (emu).’ Karlurri amilkpungeny apa karlurri yirrik ajirrik nakapa wiyiniyirrk arrarrkpi. ‘They became birds, for a long time they were people.’ See: yirrik might, perhaps. Category: Appearance.

ajput   noun. 1 • sand, beach. Ngana tuka ajput. ‘I am going to the beach’. Category: Soil.

2 • sugar. Ngana nganalakpalwarrki ngartu ta ajput. ‘I am going to buy myself sugar.’ Usage: Younger speakers might not use this term but rather kakurl See: kakurl sugar, wild honey. Category: Introduced plants.

ajputajput   adverb. along the beaches. ta ajputajput ngaw ‘the beach along that area’. Kannyarnaken ajputajput. ‘We went along the beaches poking the sand with sticks, looking for shellfish etc.’ Awaningan apa pata warranyngiw ta kamin kawulatpan ta kawarra lintij ajputajput pata warranyngiw. ‘The children who lived there, like children do, they went down to the sea and played along the beach.’ See: kamungkamung along the sandhills, i.e. just behind the beach. Category: Landscape.

akarnpa   noun. yam root, not the part that you eat, but the part that you see sticking out of the ground. The part that you eat is akijalk. You can tell where a yam root is growing by the akarnpa you see sticking out of the ground. It is like a cord. Takapa akarnpa wularr. ‘Those are yam roots.’ Kakawuta warlk. ‘It winds around a tree (the akarnpa).’ See main entry: igarnpa. See: karwuluk yam type; atimi Karwuluk yam body. Category: Plant parts.

akarra   crossreference. See main entry: igarra.

akijalk   noun. yam, grain or vegetable fruit or body. Arrkpana arrkanayan mata warlk mata kurnpi kayirrk la arrkpanamin wirirrwirirr kayirrk la manawarlkanyi ta akijalk. ‘We will go and look at the kurnpi tree and shake it and (cause) the fruit to fall.’ ta kaluku ta akijalk ‘coconut fruit (as opposed to coconut tree)’. ta akijalk ‘main body of yam, that is under the ground’. See main entry: ingijalk. Category: Plant parts.

akiri   noun. 1 • skin of yam, grain, etc. See main entry: ingiri. Category: Plant parts.

2 • foreskin. Category: Organs and torso.

akpaj   coverb. gather together in one place, put together. For example collect rubbish, or collect shellfish such as martpoj or ngarnji. Take in the washing. Arrarrkpi ying inimang akpaj. ‘A man might come and put them together.’ Kanima akpaj. ‘He's collecting (stones).’ Category: Transfer.

aku   interjection. alright!, okay! Kokatakanyi kumanyiga! Aku! ‘Hurry bring it here! Alright!’ See: awurli o.k.. Category: Language.

akut   adverb. 1 • still, or do something repetitively. Mapularr akut mapularr ngatja. ‘When it's calm we still go.’ Category: Appearance.

2 • indicates that a word is being used as a directional, as in mantanti akut, wungijalk akut and kinymalkpa muwarn akut. Kurnpirripirri Weyirra akut kilangali kapal ja bear. ‘The crocodile in on the north side, the bear is in the middle.’ Syn: angkat. See: akutju also, too. Category: General.

akut la akut   phrase. over and over again. Nuka ja apurra wungpulaj. Akut la akut kinima. ‘He is a thief. He keeps on taking things.’ Akut la akut, jungkarra la jungkarra, kamamalkpa. ‘Again and again, year after year it appears.’ Category: Activity manner.

akutju   part. 1 • also, too - used in lists. Kapin inyarlgan. Kawa kiwen kamit rturrka wanyji kinima akutju. ‘Like a turtle. They go and harpoon it, pull it in close and also get hold of it.’ Nganung yunyi kunta wupaj ta kangparlkparran la yunyi kanmin kula akutju ja irratat. ‘Sister-in-law, you must not drink clear water and you must not eat meat either.’ Inyi inimurnanganinyka parak, innyung akutju ja jurra. ‘He returns it to him, he gives him the book again.’ See: warrij too (human).

2 • do it again! keep going! See: akut still, always; muj again, still, keep on..

3 • used in lists to mean 'then after that'. Kurila akutju pik. ‘Gorilla then pig.’

alaj   prep. accompaniment, with. Napa ngatpin "Mawarlkanyi alaj waliman" ‘About that we say "She fell over with an axe".’ Algaj ngaw Ngalwangari ngarruran. ‘We went with Ngalwangari (group of 3 or more altogether).’ Nakapa ja alaj ngaw jakapa Tasha ‘He also had (a daughter) Tasha.’ See: alalajalalaj how and when; rtil together, accompanying. Category: General terms.

alalaj   coverb. spread lies about someone. Kurrima alalaj. ‘You lot have been spreading lies about him.’ Ingamany yalalaj. ‘She was telling lies about him.’ See: lagarr lie; alalajalalaj how and when. Category: Language.

alalajalalaj   adverb. how and when. La marrik ngungpurru mira malany inyarran alalajalalajkayu kanipa. ‘I don't remember very clearly, where, how and when she travelled until she got here.’ Inyarran alalajka... kanipa. ‘She came along little by little until she reached here.’ Inyarran alalajkayu... inymalkpany. ‘She travelled bit by bit and then arrived here.’ See: alaj with; alalaj spread lies about person. Category: General terms.

alalanyun   noun. Restrict: PL young men. Nganamin nuwurru anpulawnut, alalanyun. ‘I am going to speak to your elders, young men.’ Syn: marryunmarryun. See: marryun boy. Note: No singular form. Category: Ages.

alalkiya   noun. a woman who has had children. Used as a term of address or reference. Can be used as reference term together with the name of a child of the woman to refer to its mother. Alalkiya, ngawu! ‘Mother of children, come!’ alalkiya X. ‘refers to mother of person with that name in third person’. See: inymarrkparrk man with children. Category: Ages. Anth: Used as term of address by for example brother in law or marnmarn.

alan   noun. path, track, road (not footprint track). Kaningula alan karrpin, mutika alan. ‘He is making a road we call, a vehicle road.’ Tuka alan akutju angpuyarruning. ‘They followed the straight path.’ Pirr yangkungapa alan. ‘He kept following his path.’ Category: Land features.

Restrict: LL object 1 kannyutpa alan • take a particular track. Lead (OBL) on a track. Annyutpan alanapa. Annyutpan alan ja arrarrkpi. ‘The man set off on the track.’ Annyutpan alan ngarrurru. ‘He's the leader (of us). He shows us the way, he knows which way to go.’ Annyutpan parak. Kerra warak. Pa kiwuyarrun parak. ‘He set off. He's walking along. And they follow him.’ Category: General terms.

Restrict: LL object 2 kanima alan • check. Pa i: animany alan, yarrangung parak. ‘Well, that was it. He set off, he was going away.’ Category: General terms.

alangunta   noun. 1 • tree from whose roots a yellow dye is obtained, and whose fruit is eaten as a cure for coughs and colds. Morinda citrifolia. Variant: Iwaidja: Makula. Category: Trees and bushes, Medicine. Anth: Used to treat coughs, colds and diarrhoea. Preparation: One ripe fruit is eaten raw. Fruit goes white when it is ripe. Single treatment brings considerable symptomatic improvement. Found only in the dry season. The yellow roots are used to make a dye for Pandanus.

2 • rotten Cheese Fruit, Cheese Fruit. The fruit of the alangunta tree. Ja alangunta naka kiwuma ingijalk kiwula pa marrik amangawu ja mangawj la marrik amajung tuka majarr. ‘They get the fruit from the Alangunta tree and eat it. This helps to prevent coughs or sickness in the throat.’ alangunta ja karrkpin ‘a big one’. Category: Trees and bushes, Plant food, Medicine. Anth: Used to ease a cough or eye inflammation.

3 • Dye is extracted. Category: Dye and fibre plants. Anth: Used to dye pandanus for basket making. It may be yellow, red or brown depending on how it is treated. It is mixed with milirriny or kaluku ash to make red colour.

alapanja2   noun. batfish. Zabidius novaemaculeatus, Platax spp.,. Variant: Iwaidja: Alabanja. See: manungkut fish similar to Batfish; wurrut trevally (generic). Category: Perch.

alapanja1   noun. Beach Hibiscus. A tree from which rope is made. Hibiscus tiliaceus. Variant: Iwaidja: Alapanjar. Alapanja naka kampungula alguru. ‘From the alapanja tree they make rope and string.’ Category: Trees and bushes, Dye and fibre plants. Anth: It grows near the beach and has large yellow flowers. It is used to make rope.

alapika   noun. turtle type. Kutpunpanarutpa awangalmen ngarrurru pata alapika pata wilinjinyut. ‘Leave those small turtles alone so they will become plentiful for’. Category: Reptiles and amphibians.

alar   coverb. gag. To feel like vomiting but not vomit. See: kerawkun vomit. Category: Automatic actions.

Alarrku   noun. Alarrku (place name). Category: Place names.

alawi   noun. butterfly net. This net is made of sticks bound together with string. It folds in half and is used while walking through a creek by closing the net around the fish. It is not left in the creek while the tide changes. Mata alawi mata kamarnti tuka kurrampalk wukej. ‘The fishing net is hanging inside the house.’ See: alawiyalawi star pattern used in table mats. Category: Items for fishing.

alawiyalawi   noun. start pattern used at centre of table mats. Anth: The name reflects the similarity between the star and the diamond shape in alawi nets See: alawi butterfly net; kararrgararr open pattern used in basket making. Category: Clothing, adornment, magic items.

alguru   noun. 1 • type of tree that grows on the mainland and is good for making dugong rope. Category: Trees and bushes, Items for fishing.

2 • string, rope. After kiwutikiny mata alguru, wrap around with the rope ‘Then he wraps himself up in the rope.’ Category: Items for fishing.

ali   part. turn, in a series, in succession. Ngapimung ali. ‘It is my turn (to do it).’ Ma nuyimung ali kuna koyawng? ‘O.k. it's your turn, what did you see?’ Ngawu nuyi wali. ‘Come on, it's your turn.’

alijalij   noun. harpoon shaft. Alijalij karryutpa ja ingarakpin karryen ja inyarlgan. ‘We put the harpoon into the spear shaft and spear the turtle.’ Category: Tools, men's.

alikornka   noun. mother of deceased child. Usage: Address or reference term. Used regardless of the age of the child who dies. Anth: Term is usually dropped after some time, or after the woman has another child. An alikornka cannot go near the sea or eat fish or turtle as this will stop the men being able to catch any. After she has finished the period of sitting at home and warming herself on a sand cone (up to one month long) she can eat sea foods and go near the sea again. This is not generally practiced anymore. Jaka jita kinyarra waraju jita alikornka. ‘There goes the mother of the deceased child.’ Category: Ages. Note: A person is not addressed by this name.

alkparn   noun. 1 • Giant Shovelnose Ray. Rhinobatus typus. Category: Rays.

2 • Shovelnose Rays. Aptychotrema spp. Rhinobatus spp.. See: walarrapalarra Mayinjinaj form; worntokporntok Diamond Fish; rlunturran form of Giant Shovelnose Ray. Category: Rays. Anth: This one lives on the reef and in the mangrove creek.

alngkat   noun. Estuarine Stonefish. A dangerous fish that looks like a stone. Synanceia horrida, Synanceia verrucosa. Variant: Iwaidja: Yihij. Kingayarrun kirrk waryat. ‘It camouflages itself (follows the rocks)’. See: walarrirntirn Porcupine fish. Category: Fish.

alurlgwi   noun. a small prawn. Category: Crustaceans.

Alwampi   noun. place name. Category: Place names.

Alwaywi   noun. place name. Category: Place names.

alwirrgukalwirrguk   noun. a parasite that grows on a tree trunk and is used as a poultice. Category: Insects.

alya   coverb. forget. Ngapi nguran alya. ‘I forgot.’ See: pularnngalk forget; kelimutpin forget. Category: Cognitive senses and attention.

arla   iv. auxiliary verb. Karlanti jarrk. ‘Cut it in half (paper or clothing, or dividing a crab into half so each can take half.)’ See: yarrk be open.

arlajirr   noun. Reddish Ark Clam. Anadara rufescens. Variant: Iwaidja: karlajirr. Kerukikin tuka nganykarrgarr la karrima ja arlajirr. ‘The arlajirr cockle climbs up into the mangroves and we collect them.’ Syn: kupiya. Category: Shellfish. Anth: Good to eat, tastes sweet.

arlampa   noun. ceremonial headband. Used by men and women in performing kurnapipi, wuwarr, mardayin and kinyngen warlk ceremonies. This is an 'outside' word; in the ceremony it has another name. See: panang headband type; ayukayuk headband type. Category: Clothing, adornment, magic items. Usage: term used outside of ceremony

arlamun   noun. 1 • kidney. Naka arlamun murrkaj. ‘That is kidney fat.’ Category: Organs and torso.

2 • Cheeky yam type. Tacca leontopetaloides. Variant: Iwaja: Ijupalij. Ngungpuning ngimany arlamun. ‘I was digging and got an arlamun yam.’ Arlamun, ja karrila, arlamun. ‘Arlamun is the one we eat, arlamun’. Karrapa arlamun, ta walij. ‘We get arlamun, the plant food.’ Category: Plant food, Tubers. Anth: Cooked by first heating shells such as Ngarlwak in the fire and then mixing them with arlamun and cooking them more.

arlarng   coverb. 1 • to be ignorant of something or be confused about something. Ngapi ngawani arlarl la marrik ngungmanyi. ‘I am ignorant (of that) because I didn't get it properly (before).’ Category: Cognitive senses and attention.

2 • wander off into the bush: getting lost or hiding. Kerra arlarng. ‘He wandered off (e.g. a very small boy, might wander off into the bush)’. Kapa kinyarra arlarlng. ‘She went off that way.’ kinyarra arlarl ‘she got lost (e.g. in the bush)’. Category: General terms.

3 • go the wrong way or drive off the road accidentally. Ingawkpung atkurrin arlarng ‘She turned and took us the wrong way (or maybe just drove off the road accidentally).’ Category: General terms.

4 • send someone away, lead someone somewhere, lead someone astray. Innyakanka arlarng. kingakaga arlarng ‘She is sending the little boy away (because she is busy working).’ Innyakan arlarngka ja yaliwi. ‘He took him the wrong way.’ Kinnyakaga arlarng. ‘He's taking him the wrong way.’ Like warramumpik maangawurru ja road when she go, kinyarra arlarlng kawunngaka arlarlng parak. ‘Like a woman who doesn't know which road to take. She goes the wrong way. and they get lost.’ Category: Cognitive senses and attention, General terms.

Restrict: GEN subject 5: kingaka arlarng • be lost, confused, oblivious, led astray. Nganngaka arlarl. ‘I'm lost (eg in the bush).’ Ngampiwi kanmin parak? Kunngaka arlarlng ta waka? ‘Where did you go? Did you wander off over there?’ Pata kawunngaka arlarl nukawk apa ja kawarra raw kiwula yaliwi. ‘They are lost and confused, those ones keep drinking that rubbish stuff (grog).’ Category: Cognitive senses and attention, General terms.

6 • get confused with dance steps. Yara ta kawuli arlarng ta kiwarlukpa. ‘Sometimes they get it a bit wrong, the dancing.’

arlarngarlarng   coverb. Category: Play, perform, joke.

arlarrarr   part. no, nothing, none. Can be used for negative existential statements 'There is no X'. Nganmarwanyi rrupiya? Ngapi arlarrarr. Marrik ngetping. ‘Can I have some money? I have nothing. I don't have any.’ Kingama ja rrupiya, kingakaka yirrk, la kinypani arlarrarr. ‘When she gets paid, she spends it until there's nothing left.’ Arlarrarr ja 'p' ‘There is no 'p'’. Category: Language.

arlitja   noun. Blue-spotted Maskray. Dasyatis kuhlii. See: arlitju Whaler sharks with black-tipped tails. Category: Rays. Anth: This is a stingray with a dark back with blue spots. It has two spines. It lives inshore over coral reefs. Not eaten.

arlitju   noun. Whaler sharks with black tipped tails. Carcharinus spp.. See: arlitja Blue-spotted Maskray; mangirk Small reef-dwelling Black-tip Whaler Sharks; inyumpuli ngurtpartpart large whaler sharks. Category: Sharks. Anth: Young ones are eaten.

arliyu   noun. whiting. Sillago spp.. Nuka ja arliyu ja yarntulyak ja kiyap. ‘This arliyu is a long fish.’ Category: Fish. Anth: Can be eaten

arlkarl   crossreference. See: karl crawl.

arlmarra   noun. Woollybutt. Eucalyptus miniata, E. confertiflora E. jensenii (ironbark), E. phoenicea. Category: Trees and bushes.

amama   coverb. absent. Kerra amama. ‘He is absent.’ Kawarramama warrwak kawaga. ‘They're looking for food, later they'll come back.’ Category: Concealment.

amamarrang   crossreference. See: namarrang subsection, skin name of the Namartku moiety.

Amarnka   noun. place name. Category: Place names.

Amartjitpalk   noun. Place name. Category: Place names.

amparrkamparr   noun. everyone, all of us. Restrict: PL Amparrkamparr amalkpany kirrka. ‘Everyone came.’ Amparrkamparr nungmalal mira ta nungpaka ta ngaralk kimin ja school teacher. ‘We all said that's really good what he said, the school teacher.’ Category: Appearance.

amurl   coverb. dance movements. kangpin amul ‘They do the amul dance moves’. I just tell them 'ma! amurl!' ‘I just tell them "Go on, do the dance movements!'’. Kanin amurl. ‘He does dance moves.’ See: murlmurl dive in; kinnyen pierce. Category: Song and dance.

animanyirri   tv. Restrict: LL object be mother's mother's brother to. Ngapi ngungmanyirri. ‘My sister's daughter's chidren (spoken by male).’ Ya, pukapa ngungmanyirri mira. ‘Yes those who are my close wiwis’. angamanyirri wu ‘The grandmother of those children, she is grandmother to them.’ See: mawawiny mother-in-law, woman's child-in-law. Category: family, inc moieties.

animanyirri mayakpu   idiom. 1 • polite way for people to refer to a woman's classificatory mawawiny who is her father's sister's wiwi (FZDD) when talking to her. Category: family, inc moieties. Anth: Also used to refer to the two who call each other mawawiny who are related to each other as FZDD/MMBD

2 • the man who arranges the marriage, who is mother's mother's brother to the girl and father to the boy. Category: family, inc moieties. Anth: After this relative dies, the mother-in-law and her children-in-law can resume normal relations, talking to each other, and addressing each other as the kin relations they would otherwise have - usually wirlupirlu-ngawiny.

aningurtpulmuniny   noun. the last, youngest son in a family. Syn: awuniluriny. See: aniwukpulmununy the last child of a certain gender who comes after many of the opposite gender; perrgen second eldest brother. Category: Ages.

aniwukpulmununy   noun. the last child of a certain gender who comes after many of the opposite gender. For example the youngest child in a family if that child is a boy and the three children who came before him were girls. Form angawukpulmuny used for girls. See: aningurtpulmuniny the last, youngest son in a family; kiniyirntun be a woman's last child. Category: Ages.

anjirla   noun. spear (generic). arrkarl yuranka manimany anjirla inirrkjiny tuka [wamuwun]. ‘Arrkarl (Saltwater Longtom) came with his spear, he speared that coral.’ Category: Tools, men's.

Anjumu   noun. place name. Category: Place names.

anmiyarlat   noun. vine used for fish poison. Derris trifoliata. Anth: Used as a fish poison in the sea in reefs and rockpools. Category: Small plants, Toxic plants.

anpana   iv. you (singular) will go. See main entry: ke.

anpirrk   noun. hill. See: murrgun earthen hill; kamung sandhill. Category: Large features.

anpulakpi   cross-reference. See main entry: nulakpi.

anpulawnut   noun. oldest sibling in family, male or female. "Larla" aminy ngaw jita anpulawnutapa inypaning awunngatpang. ‘"Sister" they said to the oldest one who was looking after them.’ See: anpulawnut pularr elders; yarrunparrki a person talking to their kamu or yiji about their own brother or sister. Syn: najaman, wulkurr, nulawnut. Category: Ages.

anpulawnut pularr   noun. elders. Restrict: PL Nganamin nuwurru anyak anpulawnut pularr. ‘I will say just a little to you elders.’ anpulawnut pularr See: nulawnut elder; anpulawnut oldest sibling. Category: Ages.

anpulirri   noun. soldiers, warriors. See: lirri trouble, enemy. Category: Fight.

antangarrk   noun. reeds which grow along the edge of a billabong. Kayirrk ilurrang ja marryun anyak ja najaman ingawutiny manpurrwa ingutpan tuka antangarrk tuka awulangaling pulikang. ‘Then the little boy, the firstborn was born (and) she wrapped him in cloth and put him in the hay where the cattle were.’ Category: Small plants.

any   noun. armpit. Syn: nganpiny. Category: Limbs.

anyak   noun. 1 • small amount of, a piece out of, few. Anyakju ngimiyarma ‘I only want a small piece’. Pata tuwuran wapaka awaning anyak. ‘The ones belonging to that place were few.’ Category: Size and weight.

2 • young, small. Ja pipij anyak marrik ilangalinga la naka ingurrinang. ‘The small child wasn't sitting down, he was running (about).’ Category: Illness and death.

adverb. a little bit. Awurtpiny parak anyak. ‘They moved a bit closer.’ Category: Activity manner.

anyak la anyak   adverb. little by little. Pa nungpakapa ngarrini monmonpu anyak la anyak. ‘So we're explaining this to them little by little.’ Category: Activity manner.

anyamin   crossreference. See: yamin it.

anyanat   crossreference. See: yanat it.

angawukpulmununy   crossreference. See: aniwukpulmununy last child of a certain gender that a mother has.

angkat   adverb. always, keep on, continually, eternally. Kiwani angkat. ‘He always sits there’. Ilangalingju ta wupaj angkat. ‘He just kept on standing there in the water (a buffalo)’. Iwuwuning angkat parak pata Inyjalarrku. ‘The Inyjalarrku spirits were farewelling him (at his funeral).’ Category: Activity manner.

coverb. farewell. Puka pata arrarrkpi, ngarrkarrk warramumpik la ngarrkarrk la ngarrkarrk arrarrkpi kawuntuwun angkat la wemin. ‘These people, two women and four men, are farewelling each other.’ Kunpun angkat, nganuraka. ‘I'll see you later, I'm going now.’ See: angkatangkat forever, permanently.. Syn: akut. Category: Language.

angkatangkat   adverb. forever, permanently. Makiny la yuran angkatangkat. Yiwaning nungmatpa kunak. ‘Thereupon he went away for good. He stayed in another country.’ (Ta) marrik kunnyenyjing naka ngana angkatangkat. ‘'If I had seen you, I wouldn't have gone away.'’. Kutpamaju angkatangkat la marrik kutpurnanganingka muj. ‘You'll die forever and you won't come back again."’ See: angkat always. Category: Activity manner.

angmalanmalany   noun. Restrict: LL subject weak from hunger. Angmalanmalany naka wirrngak karrpaju. ‘Angmalanmalany means that we are hungry.’ Mhmm kimaju wirrngak, kurriyuni walij, angmalanmalany kirrk. Naka ja angmalanmalany. ‘He's very hungry.’ He's kangmalanmalan, he's hungry. Category: Physical disability and injury.

angmirriyangkat   iv. Restrict: LL subject area becomes safe after a death has made people frightened of going there. Angmirriyangkat ta kunak. ‘The area is safe again.’ See: maralangkat stare; kernangkayin strengthen, harden; angmirriyangkayiny area of land or road becomes safe after a death; numirriyankat tame, safe. Category: fear, shock, surprise.

angmirriyangkayiny   iv. area of land or road become safe after a death. Kayirrkap(a) angmirryangkayiny, angmirriyangkayiny ta alan. ‘Now the road is safe again (after a death made people feel unsafe to walk around).’ Ngamirriyangkayi ta ngapi wiyu. ‘I become safe again (after being avoided for some time).’ See: kimurtpin avoid; numirriyangkat; angmirriyangkat; kinimirriyangkata; kilatparlangkayin become strong. Category: fear, shock, surprise, Social responsibilities and events.

angparti   noun. 1 • bow of the canoe, the part at the front. Ant: wurlurn. See: kapal middle; nuwutja inexpert, poor fisherman. Category: Items for fishing.

2 • hunter who works from the front of the canoe. This person spears the inyarlgan 'turtle or dugong'. Anth: Traditionally this person didn't really get to keep any of the meat he had speared, he only got the head. One who sits in the middle is called kapal or ja kiwani kapal. Ja angparti ja kinin kiyap yara inyarlgan. ‘The one who works from the forepart of the canoe spears the fish or the turtle.’ See: wurlurn captain of canoe; kapal hunter who sits in the middle of the canoe; nuwutja inexpert, poor fisherman. Category: Initiation.

3 • Expert in a particular area. Naka ja angparti. ‘He is an expert at it.’ Category: Initiation, Goodness.

4 • front (of body). Akutju angparti warak ‘And again he orients himself straight ahead (after spinning around).’ Category: Other.

Angpungijpa   noun. Watson's tree point. Category: Place names.

arnakuj   noun. 1 • fish type, spotted, inflates its abdomen. Arnakuj walarrirntirn kawaga lirri. Narut awuniwung. ‘Arnakuj and Walarrirntirn come to fight. Narut kills/hits them.’ Category: Fish.

2 • fish trap type. Category: Items for fishing. See: yarlawu fish trap.

Arnanarnan   noun. smilax, a tree type found in the jungle. Smilax australis. Variant: Iwaja: Arnanarnan. Category: Trees and bushes. Anth: Not eaten. Found in the jungle walmurtja. Has sharp prickles.

arnangkat   noun. strong, hard (to touch). Category: Properties of surface, Healing and fitness.

arnmilwil   noun. a clump of oysters that have been knocked off the rock they were attached to, often still with a bit of rock. attached. Variant: Iwaidja: kirrwar. Kuwanama ngartu arnmirlmirl alaj ingiri. ‘Collect oysters for me, still in their shell (i.e. don't just collect the meat out of them).’ See: karrarnarn oysters; arrayi Black-Lip Rock Oyster; namatpa other, another one. Syn: ngalpiri. Category: Shellfish. Anth: Oysters are collected in clumps, unopened by knocking the clump of oysters off the rock. They can then be carried home and eaten when needed, even a few days later. The arnmilwil can be placed in the fire and the shells will open on their own.

arnpij   noun. a piece of loose or hanging skin. Category: Other.

arnpurrik   noun. Wedge-tailed eagle. Aquila audax. Category: Small birds.

ap   coverb. 1 • sit down. Yuran ap iwaning. ‘He sat down and stayed there.’ nguran ap ‘we sat down’. See: pap sit!, be. Category: Physical stance.

2 • sit down. ngarraran ap, ngatpaning ‘we all sat down, we sat there’. Category: Change stance.

apagarl   noun. bald. Nakapa apagarl ja arrarrkpi. ‘That man is bald.’ Category: Hair.

apaka   noun. length, breadth, distance, size. Ya. Wakapa, kani la apaka inyangkung ‘Yes, over there, here and further on, she travelled back and forth, getting the language.’ Kani Maningrida ta outstation ngaw apaka wakapa kawani arrarrkpi. ‘The outstation where people live is further on from Maningrida.’ Apaka Wunguk yurtiny nungmatpa karrkaj yurtiny. ‘He landed further on, at Wunguk, on that other island.’ See: kinnyaka build; wapaka at that place, far distant. Category: Location and distance, Size and weight.

apaligaj   noun. young shoots of food plants, e.g. yam plants. See: mamaligaj young shoots. Category: General terms.

aparlangurri   noun. plant type. Micromelum minutum. Category: Trees and bushes. Anth: Used to make spears.

aparlmurrka   noun. Rock Pandanus. Pandanus basedowii. Variant: Iwaidja: Gabarrmurrga. See: murwala Pandanus. Category: Trees and bushes. Anth: Not eaten.

apan   noun. spear shaft. Mata apan algaj rlama. ‘The spear shaft has a shovel spear point.’ Category: Tools, men's.

apanga   noun. top part of yam that joins to akarnpa and can be cut off and replanted. wumanga; Syn: apungkurryuwu. See: mamanga main trunk of a tree; karwuluk yam type; Wurruwujpiny yam type. Category: Plant parts, Tubers.

apangkun   noun. huge, large. Category: Size and weight.

aparranguliny   iv. Restrict: ED subject ripe, ready to se, mature yam or grain crop. Kantayanti takapa ta aparrangula karwuluk! ‘Look at that ready to eat yam!’ Wularrut aparrangulany ta mawugany. ‘The lily roots have already matured.’ Aparranguliny walij ‘The food is ready to harvest’. See: kangmarrangulin it reminds me of.

aparrk   noun. 1 • penis. Syn: warla. See main entry: imarrk. Syn: mazyirratat. Category: Organs and torso. Note: not used to refer to yams at all.

2 • cut of dugong meat. Category: Mammals, Organs and torso.

apartpalmili   noun. part of the house under the gables. Category: Shelter, camp, house. See main entry: iwartpalmili.

apartpuning   iv. Restrict: ED subject bump into rock or tree while walking. Kinyjangali la inyuranka angamarrajpungka apartpuning ngaw. ‘She's standing and then she comes walking along and bumps into something.’ See: mawartpalmuni bump, bump together. Category: Strike or chop. Note: Could be related to katingartpuni 'stubb toe' or wartpi 'fight'. Other words to do with blows with similar form.

apawurr   noun. armlike projections on potato or yam. Category: Plant parts. See main entry: imawurr.

apijpirr   noun. clear sky, no rain coming. Malany walmat angkat kangmalkpaga? Wularrut apijpirr kirrk. ‘Is the rain still coming down? It has cleared up now.’ See: kalalk clear weather, clear sky; kuwinu cloud, cloudy sky. Ant: nguljirr. Category: Weather, Rains.

apiya   noun. foliage of yam, grain crop or coconut tree. Category: Plant parts, Plant food. Takapa apiya ngaw karwuluk. ‘That is the foliage of the long yam.’ See main entry: iwiya.

apugi   noun. old, worn out. See main entry: iwugi. Category: Longer.

apun   noun. big, important. See main entry: imun. Category: Appearance.

apungkurryuwu   noun. 1 • time of the year when bush food is ready to be collected. Syn: apururrk walij. See main entry: imungkurryuwu. See: iwururrk succulent, juicy. Category: Longer.

2 • part of a yam plant at the top of the yam which can be cut off and replanted. See: karwuluk yam type; Wurruwujpiny yam type. Syn: apanga. Category: Plant parts, Tubers.

apururrk walij   noun. time of the year when bush food is plentiful, February. This is the harvest time for yams, when the long grass goes to seed and falls down. Wularrut apururrkpalij la arrkpana arrapanawun arrapanal. ‘It is now harvest time (for bush foods) so let us go and dig for them and eat them.’ ta apururrk walij ‘good season’. Pa ngatja, ngarrapa, ta apururrk ta walij kapin miyulum. ‘Well we go off and get it, all the juicy food like Miyulum yam.’ See: iwururrk succulent, juicy. Syn: apungkurryuwu. Category: Longer.

apurra   noun. many, lots.

ja apurra (nuyu) (ta)   person who does X a lot,. a special agentive nominalization. Nuka ja apurra wungpulaj. Akut la akut kinima. ‘He is a thief. He keeps on taking things.’ Innyarntarrakpany ja apurra wungpulaj. ‘They caught out the thief.’ ja apurra nuyu ta wilik yarrangung pilik. ‘The one who always asked them for food (Wurakak)’. See main entry: imurra. Category: Appearance.

ara   adverb. as far as, all the way to or from. Ngarrungmarrajpuning kapa ara Anjumu. ‘We walked as far as Anjumu.’ Category: Distance.

arak   coverb. 1 • separate people who must avoid being close to each other because of their family relation by sitting or sleeping between them. Nganaw arak. ‘I'll sit between them (to separate them because they had a mother-in-law/son-in-law relationship)’. Anpanaw arakpu, kani! ‘You sleep between them, here!’ Kanyu arak wumawurr. ‘The milky way (lit: the creek that lies across)’. Category: Remain stationary, Anxiety, shame. Note: People who are opposite sex siblings, in an iji-ngaya relationships or are mawawiny to one another cannot sleep lying next to one another so another person must sleep between them.

2 • travel by boat between two points. kiw warak. ‘He travelled across the sea in a boat.’ Innyakan parak, kiw warakparak. ‘He set off in a boat, he's travelling across a stretch of sea.’ Category: Travel by vehicle.

2a • be striped. Kingurrin arak karlwa. ‘It has yellow stripes.’ Category: Properties of surface.

Restrict: MA object 3 • to set off in a boat. Used for boats with engines. Innyakan parak pa kerra warak. ‘He left in a boat, went off.’ Arriwaka warak. ‘We're going to travel by boat, you and me, go by sea.’ Innyakan parak ja kapala. ‘He went by sea by himself.’ Category: Travel by vehicle. See: warak coverb; warakparak reduplicated form of coverb warak.

Restrict: MA object 4 • cross sea in a boat. Awulatikin la innyutpan arak. ‘They went across (in a boat).’ And karrayan "Innyutpan arak. Kapala. Kerra warak" ‘We see it and say "Somebody's crossing (between north and south Goulburn islands). There's a boat. It's travelling along."’ Innyakan parak innyutpan arak. ‘The boat launched and crossed over between the two pieces of land.’ See: warak (kinnyaka) launch boat. Category: Travel by vehicle.

5 • be in the way of somebody or about to cross paths with them. If that person is a family relation you shouldn't be near to somebody will say this to you so you can go around them. Inyi kutpa arak! ‘Don't cross his path!’ Kiw arak. Ngannyutpan arak. ‘He's in the way. He's blocking my path (a crocodile in a creek).’ Arta nukapa ngannyutpan arak ja marnmarn la kunuka nuyu. ‘Oh, this is not the way to get across (lit. it is blocked for me this way), Marnmarn, what are we doing?’ Category: Movement relating to fixed point, Anxiety, shame.

Restrict: VE 6 • put something across as bridge. Nganyutpan arak. ‘I put (the wood, plank) across.’ Category: Transfer.

arakarak   coverb. put across. Ngyutpan arakarak. ‘I cut across the wind in the boat (so that the waves wouldn't toss the boat around so much)’. Iniwarlkarriny parak innyutpan arakparak. ‘He launched his canoe and crossed to the other side’. Mannyutpan arakarak. ‘He put (the planks) across.’ Category: Travel by vehicle.

warakparak    Note: reduplicated form of coverb warak See: arak a coverb combining with kiw, kinnyaka and kinnyutpa.

arakap   noun. have an idea (about something). arakapa ja ‘once more’. See main entry: yarakap. Restrict: LL object Animany arakap ta awunpannyukiki warranygiw. ‘He had an idea about what to teach the children.’

arakapju   form one together. arakapju

aralpa   interjection. true, really, truly, also used as substitute for 'amen' in hymns. See: mira really, very. Category: Judgement, evaluation.

ararruj   coverb. take out (hidden). La yarakap ja wakapa ilangaling inimany ararrujka ja manjawak iniwung. ‘Then one (person) who was standing there took out the knife (and) struck him.’ See: qarirrij look around, look behind. Category: Transfer.

arawirr1   noun. 1 • hollow log or tree, either alive or dead. Category: General terms.

2 • didgeridoo. Muka mata arawirr. ‘This is a didgeridoo.’ See: arawirrarawirr Worm Snail. Category: Tools, men's, Song and dance.

arawirr2   noun. gun. La nuka ja arawirr, ja kiwen karlurri. ‘And this is a gun, used to shoot animals.’ See: arawirrarawirr Worm Snail. Category: Other.

arawirrarawirr   noun. Worm Snail. Serpulorbis sp.. Variant: Iwaidja: Ardawirrardawirr. See: arawirr didgeridoo, gun. Category: Shellfish. Anth: Not good to eat.

arawungut   noun. a few. Category: Amounts. See main entry: yarawungut. Category: Appearance.

arda   crossreference. See: arta eh? (Question marker which expects a yes answer).

arij   coverb. swell up. Yunyi kurryatpi la kutpujpikpi arij. ‘Don't touch that, you might swell up.’ Arrkpujpikpi arij lump karryetpi. ‘We swell up and get a lump.’ See: kiwujpikpin swollen. Category: Sickness.

aril   coverb. 1 • circle around, linger. Can be 'linger' or 'hang around' for people. Or for a person who keeps going up and down looking for something. Koyanti karlurri kili aril. ‘Look at the bird circling around.’ Category: Horizontal movements.

2 • circle around. Kerra aril. ‘He's circling, e.g. bird looking for fish.’ Category: Horizontal movements.

3 • cut around. Inilalkuny arilga arilwi. ‘He cut it in a circular fashion.’ kinilalkuny aril la aril Category: Divide, cut, tear. Anth: Used in decribing how turtles, dugongs and buffaloes are cut open to remove the guts.

4 • encircle. Category: Horizontal movements.

5 • surround, entry. Awuntuwutiny aril ‘They (birds) are circling them (prey).’ Category: Horizontal movements.

arilaril   coverb. go on circling around. Category: Horizontal movements.

1 • go around in circles. Kawungurrin arilaril ‘They're going around and around in a circle (on their bicycles)’. Category: Horizontal movements.

2 •  Category: Horizontal movements.

arilka   noun. 1 • Parrotfishes and Wrasses (generic). Labridae, Scaridae. Marryun inimany mira arilka. ‘The boy got a lot of parrot fish.’ See: kunjarraj Large parrot fish or wrasse; milarrarru three particular parrot fishes. Category: Parrotfish.

2 • Blue Tuskfish, big Wrasse. Choerodon cyanodus. Variant: Iwaidja: Ardilka. Category: Fish. Anth: These are big edible wrasses; they have blue bones and live on the reef.

arirrij   coverb. look behind, look around. Kimin arirrij. ‘He turns around and looks (for example to see if somebody is following him.)’ Ma inyarrangungka, inyminy arirrij ingayalmany. ‘So she comes along, she looked behind, she looked for him.’ Arrarrkpi iminy arij mannyayawng mata lamp. ‘A man turned around and looked at the lamp.’ See: ararruj take out. Category: Cognitive senses and attention.

arirrijarirrij   coverb. keep looking behind. Category: Cognitive senses and attention.

arka   adverb. part way, halfway, a little.bit. Iwumany arka iwutpan. ‘They took it part of the way and then put it down.’ Nungpakapa ta ngarrat pularngalk arka arakap ja nukapa ja nguya ja nukapa kaminWarrarakuku ‘Also I forgot a little bit, one tribe name - that tribe Warrarakuku’. Iniyarrun parak ingawirrung orka warlk ja pelk, la iminy arririj ja arrarrkpi kingurrin parak ingawung warlk. ‘He was chasing him, the belt got caught on the tree as he passed it and the man turned around, was running and hit a tree.’ Category: Location and distance.

arkalu   noun. light in weight. See main entry: yarkalu. Category: Size and weight.

arukaruk   noun. late afternoon, early evening. Arrarrkpi awk ta kawarra kinyuryi muwarn pata wera pata arrarrkpi karrpin pu katja arrarranyi nuyu arukaruk. ‘When people go about and the sun is going down some people say let's go because it is late afternoon.’ See: nungmatpa warntatarr yesterday, the other day; nanguj a time in the recent past, eg. yesterday, the other day, last week. Category: Daily.

arukin   noun. 1 • snake, generic term. Category: Reptiles and amphibians.

2 • Rainbow serpent. See: Karringitpalka Rainbow serpent. Category: General.

3 • rainbow. Category: Sky.

4 • kurnapipi ceremony. Kawurtin jita arukin. ‘They have gone inland for the kurnapipi’. Syn: karlurri, kurnapipi. Category: General ritual.

aryak   noun. wet. Category: Properties of surface. See main entry: yaryak. Category: Properties of surface.

Aryaryin   noun. on North Goulburn. Category: Place names.

arr   coverb. 1 • keep, hang onto, stick, stay attached for a while. Kanyu arr. ‘It (the drip) is stuck on (and will stay there for a few days)’. Ngapi ngaw arr. ‘I am keeping that / I still want that’. Nuyi kanyu arr. ‘You are keeping that / You still want that.’ See: arrarr tease, have diarrhoea; marr like very much; kinnyatpi have. Category: Holding, sticking.

2 • too long, very long. Katju arr ta tuka. ‘This thing is very long/ too long.’ Category: Size and weight.

3 • pull, tow or drag something e.g. tow a car or drag a boat on a rope. Aminy arr warakapa mata mara marukiny warak tuka kamung.. ‘They pulled it down the sandhills.’ Parangapa aminang arr karrurru. ‘Then they would put up the sails. (i.e. stretch them)’. Ngamin arr. ‘I am stretching (myself)’. See: kimilitpakan stretch arms or legs out. Syn: kinilagalun. Category: Manipulation.

4 • drag. Kerra arrarr warak. ‘He drags it away (eg. croc with bone).’ Category: Manipulation.

5 • pull, stretch. Inimangung arrga. ‘He was pulling it in this direction.’ Kinima arr. ‘He drags it (e.g. a croc with a bone)’. See: parrparr be extended, cover a large area. Category: Manipulation, Automatic actions.

arraj   coverb. grab (sand, dirt). Animany arraj kunak. ‘He was digging in the sand.’ Ngungpanama arraj ‘I'm going to grab (some sand).’ Ja luluj aniwung arraj. ‘The dog has kicked dirt here (to cover his shit).’ Syn: ngarrk. Category: Holding, sticking.

arranamanyjilina   noun. our brother-in-law, a brother can say this to his sister about her husband or another sister's husband, male speaker only. arranamanyjilinang ‘translated as 'our brother-in-law' used by a man’. See: arrkpanpukpunyjilin you use this word to speak to someone whose husband you call nanung about that husband; ngantumak my mawawiny who is your husband or wife; kurrininy a woman or a man talking to their son about his brother-in-law(s). Category: family, inc moieties. Anth: Reciprocal between men. A woman can use kurrininy to reply to her brother. kurrininy is same but used by a female speaker

arrapalen   noun. plane. Yanat kiwken kinnyayan ja arraparlen kingurrinka. ‘He is looking and can see the plane coming.’ Category: Other.

arrapujpa   noun. song man. Kawaga arrapujpa la pata kiwatlukpa kamirawn la kiwarlpukpa. ‘The songman and the dancers come and they sing and dance.’ Category: Initiation.

arrapulyu   noun. Saltwater catfishes, Giant Salmon catfish and Smaller Salmon catfish. Saltwater catfishes. Arius thalassinus, Arius graeffei. Variant: Iwaidja: Wirtu. See: ikaman freshwater catfish; marrnguny Freshwater nailfish (generic), Eel-tailed catfish, Hyrtl's catfish (Yellowfinned Catfish), Black catfish. Category: Catfish.

arrarawungut   noun. we are few in number, we are a small group. See main entry: yarawungut. Category: Amounts.

arrarr   coverb. 1 • tease. Karrima arrarr. ‘We are teasing him.’ Category: Language.

2 • talk too much to OBJ, talk someone's ear off. Nganima arrarr, nuka angkat kinginka. ‘He's talking to much (to me) he talks on and on.’ Oh nuka angkat nganima arrarr. ‘He talks too much.’ Category: Language.

3 • talk too much about OBJ. Jaka akut kurrinyma arrarr arrkparlanparlarrut. ‘You (pl) always talk about that (female) relative of ours too much.’ Category: Language.

Restrict: MA subject 3 • have diarrhoea. Nganima arrarr. ‘Diarrhoea has me (I have diarrhoea).’ Nganima arrarr. ‘I've got diarrhoea.’ Nganima arrarr ja mawili. ‘I've got diarrhoea.’ See: arr keep, hang onto, stick; mawili diarrhoea; wurlurlu feel the desire for revenge. Category: Sickness.

4 • tow. La nakayu kurrkurrinang arrarrga? ‘So you towed it back home?’ Category: Manipulation.

arrarran   iv. We (inclusive) went. See main entry: kerra.

arrarrkpi   noun. 1 • man, married man or man who has gone through ceremonies. Nuka arrarrkpi. ‘This is a man.’ Kurlingka marryun kawani? ‘Are there any males/boys living here?’ See: warla nuyu male; warra punyi fathers, men. Category: Peoples and clans, Ages.

2 • aboriginal person. Category: Peoples and clans. Nuka arrarrkpi la nuka palanta. ‘This is an aborigine and this is a white man.’

3 • a group of Aboriginal people. Category: Females. Arrarrkpi kawulangali iliwan. ‘The (aboriginal) people are at Iliwan.’

4 • human, person. Ngarrurri arrarrkpi yirrk, ta ngarrurri. ‘We are all people, we are.’ Category: Females.

arrarru   noun. Pugnose ponyfish and other ponyfishes. Secutor ruconis, Leiognathus spp.. Ja arrarru ja nuwanpal ja kiyap. ‘The arrarru fish is a broad fish.’ See: milarrarru thick-lipped wrasse, violet-lined parrotfish. Category: Fish.

arrayi   noun. Black-lip Rock Oyster (Large). Saccostrea mytiloides. Variant: Iwaidja: arrayi. See: arnmilwil fragment of rock with oysters on it. Category: Shellfish. Anth: Good to eat. Only the white part is eaten, not the white lips.

arri   coverb. sleepy, as in the morning when you've slept late, as opposed to kingawun ngurrij which is used when you're sleepy in the evening. Nguruju arij. ‘I am sleepy.’ See: ngurrij sleepy, sleep; kiwruju sleep in, sleep late. Category: Sleep.

arrimanypun   noun. used between spouses so we are not talking about close ngawiny or kayu but more distant ones. My ngawiny who is your kayu or mawij. Or my kayu or mawij who is your ngawiny. See: arrinymanypun Used between spouses so we are not talking about close ngawiny or larla; kurrunmanypun This word is used between spouses so we are not talking about close ngawiny; kurrinymanypun this word is used between spouses. Category: family, inc moieties. Anth: reciprocal

arrimanga   noun. used to talk about or talk to a man who has recently lost a brother or sister. Usage: address term or reference term, replaces use of skin name during bereavement period See: arrinymanga bereaved sister; wumanga source of a creek. Category: Ages.

arrinymanypun   noun. used between spouses so we are not talking about close ngawiny or larla. My ngawiny who is your larla or mawij. Or my larla or mawij who is your ngawiny. See: arrimanypun Used between spouses so we are not talking about close ngawiny or kayu but more distant ones; kurrunmanypun This word is used between spouses so we are not talking about close ngawiny. Category: family, inc moieties. Anth: reciprocal

arrinymanga   noun. used instead of skin name for a woman who has recently lost a brother or sister. Usage: address term or reference term, replaces use of skin name during bereavement period See: arrimanga bereaved brother. Category: Ages.

arrinypiny   noun. someone who stands in a possible wife relationship to both you and me. arrinypinyi ‘our wife - i.e. marriagable by both speaker and hearer’. Category: family, inc moieties.

arrkarl   noun. Saltwater Longtom. Strongylura spp.. arrkarl yuranka manimany anjirla inirrkjiny tuka [wamuwun]. ‘Arrkarl (Saltwater Longtom) came with his spear, he speared that coral.’ See: mirrita Garfish. Category: Fish.

arrkparlanparlarrut   noun. us and those of our moiety. Jaka akut kurrinyma arrarr arrkparlanparlarrut ‘You (pl) always talk about that (female) relative of ours too.’ See: witparlanparlarrut their relations; arrkparlarrut we of the same moiety and totem. Category: family, inc moieties.

arrkparlanga   noun. our sister-in-law. A woman says this to her sister about their brother's wife. Not restricted to close kin: any two women who call each other larla or mawij can use this to refer to any woman married to a man they call kayu or mawij. See: nuwutparlanga My daughter-in-law who is your sister-in-law. Category: family, inc moieties.

arrkparlarrut   noun. we (who are) moiety brothers, we of the same moiety and totem. Category: family, inc moieties. See: witparlarrut they of the same moiety and have the same totem; ngatpularrut group of people with the same moiety and totem; arrkparlanparlarrut us and those of our moeity; witparlanparlarrut their relations. Category: family, inc moieties.

arrkpana   iv. we (inclusive) will go. See main entry: ke.

arrkpanpukpunyjilin   noun. you use this word to speak to someone whose husband you call nanung about that husband. And they can use it to reply about the same person. See: arranamanyjilina our brother-in-law, a brother can say this to his sister about her husband or another sister's husband, male speaker only. Category: family, inc moieties. Anth: reciprocal

arrkpuntuj   noun. sisters who are in the same clan. They need not be 'close' sisters. Ngatpuntuj Yalama ‘My sisters who are also in Yalama clan.’ Ngatpuntuj Bon. ‘My sisters who are also in Bon clan.’ See: arrkpurrung my brothers who share the same clan name as me; nuwutpuntuj a man or woman uses this to talk to one of their children about another one. Category: Peoples and clans, family, inc moieties.

arrkpurrung   noun. brothers who are in the same clan. They need not be 'close' brothers. Ngatpurrung Jalama. ‘My brothers who are also in Yalama clan.’ Ja nuka ngatpurrung Manjulnguny Nawuraj inimany. ‘My cousin-brother's (Kuwartpu number 1), son (Albert).’ ngatpurrung, ngatpirring, ngatpurru ‘my brother’. See: nuwutpurrung a man or woman uses this to talk to one of their children about another male one; arrkpuntuj sisters same clan; kiniwurrun know, remember or think about a specific person or thing. Category: Peoples and clans, family, inc moieties.

arrparlkparrakanut   noun. we are old people, us old people. Category: Peoples and clans, Illness and death.

arrpuk   noun. Australian Anemonefish. Amphiprion rubrocinctus. Category: Fish. Anth: There are lots of these small fish at Wiyarla. When the tide was right out people would collect them from the reef with their hands. They would cover their hands with clothing so as not to get stung. The fish is eaten.

arruk   noun. death adder. See: wirrngijpirrngij death adder. Category: Snakes.

arrunpangartakpin   tv. Restrict: GEN subject overhead sun. Arrunpangartakpin la arrkpana. ‘When the sun is overhead we will go.’ Category: Sky.

arrunuwatpa   noun. said about husband's father when talking to somebody else. arrunuwatpa ‘your.kamu(avoid) ; your.punyi(avoid)’. See: ngarrunuwatpa said to a person to avoid mentioning their mother or father directly to them. Category: family, inc moieties.

arruran1   noun. used between spouses. The one I call ngaya and you call mawawiny (poison cousin or mother-in-law). Category: family, inc moieties.

atakpirij   noun. mouth, opening. See main entry: ilakpirij. Category: Head.

atijpularr   noun. 1 • young plant, small plant. Category: General terms.

2 • fingers. Ta nigi la ta atijpularr. ‘The thumb and the fingers’. See main entry: ilijpularr. Category: Limbs.

atimi   noun. 1 • Karwuluk yam body. See main entry: inimi. See: akarnpa stem of Karwuluk. Category: Plant parts, Tubers.

2 • last bit of food. Katila atimi. ‘He's eating the last bit (of food).’ See: niminimi go to back (of something); karwuluk yam type. Category: Plant food.

atimputput   noun. thumb, big toe. Category: Limbs.

atinikanikang   tv. huge from eating a lot. See: katinikiniki carry a lot on back and head. Category: Illness.

atjak   noun. 1 • pain, sickness, fever. Usage: occurs in sickness constructions with kinima with MA subject, kinnyatpi with MA subject and kimaju. Ngamaju atjak. ‘I am sick with a fever.’ Atjak ja numurrunti. ‘It's a bad cold.’ Atjak kega. ‘A sickness is coming from overseas’. Syn: wuyak. Category: Sickness.

2 • name of a place from which overwhelming sickness comes. There is an atjak place on North Goulburn Island and also Poison Island, near Croker Island. Syn: wuyak. Category: Land features.

atjamin   pro. it, reciprocal, contrastive pronoun. See main entry: yamin.

atjanat   pro. it. See main entry: yanat.

atjirr   noun. area west of Goulburn Island: Croker Island and Cape Don area. See: imurlk area to the east of Goulburn Island; ajirr lower flipper and half of one side of muli, the bottom part of the turtle.; walem further south than Gunbalanya, Oenpelli, from Warruwi. Category: Place names.

atjiyarrkarrk   noun. possessions of a livng person, refers to materials, blankets, clothes, not to large items such as cars, boats, etc. Category: Clothing, adornment, magic items. See: naputjanputjan deceased's clothing/possessions; manpurrwa clothing.

atpaji   noun. this word is used to refer to one member of a married couple whose subsections are both in the same matrimoiety. Anth: This word is used instead of their skin name because the skin name would suggest a different relationship that the actual one. The word is used across the marriage boundary, for example if a woman is married to your B but they have a wrong skin marriage she calls you (female) atpaji. See: kurrunnyatpi This word is used when an atpaji relationship occurs between people. Category: family, inc moieties. Anth: Reciprocal term used is kin term

aturtpuj   noun. short. Category: Size and weight. See main entry: ilurtpuj. Category: Size and weight.

arta   interjection. 1 • eh? (Question marker which expects a yes answer). Arrkpana arta? ‘Let's go, eh?’

2 • well.., dear, oh dear, oh. See: wartaw ow!; artaka oh. Category: Language.

Artagaj   noun. place name. Category: Place names.

artaka   interjection. oh. See: arta eh?; wartaw ow!. Category: Language.

artakamul   noun. short throwing stick used to hit magpie geese when out hunting. Kawa Iliwan kiwuwun manimunak artakamul. ‘They are catching magpie geese with a throwing stick at Iliwan.’ See: namalurru geese hunting stick. Category: Tools, men's.

Artamurrka   noun. Pipe tree, White tree. Scaevola taccada. Variant: Iwaidja: Midarrk or Wilawila. Category: Trees and bushes.

arteny   part. in exchange for, in return for. Artany arrunpung walij. ‘In exchange they gave us food.’ Yanat iwung warramumpik la artany awunnyung kupuny yirrik la kunuka yirrik. ‘They gave him a woman and in return he might give them a canoe or a spear or something else.’ Puka arteny awunpung parak, walij. Kayirrk la wemin arteny awunpungka walij. ‘They give them food. Then afterwards the other lot gives them food.’ Category: Transfer.

artparak   noun. waterhole, well, can be dug out or not. See: wurl billabong; aga waterhole; iwarak footprints, tracks. Category: Water bodies.

artpurrij   noun. 1 • type of bush yam a bit like a long yam, karwuluk. Ipomoea abrupta, Ipomoea aquatica?. Variant: Iwaidja: Ardburrij. Category: Tubers, Plant food.

2 • sweet potato. Artpurrij katjurjin Anjumu ‘Sweet potatoes are planted at Anjumu.’ Category: Tubers, Plant food.

artun   noun. new, fresh young miyulum or yuwak yam. A young Miyulum has lines or stripes on it. Ipomoea graminea. See: mawagarl old miyulum yam; yuwak yam type; wuluyi immature miyulum yam; miyulum yam type. Category: Plant food, Tubers.

awalijap   noun. small, used to refer to the fingers. Category: Size and weight. See main entry: ilijap.

awalinjinyut   noun. small, small things. See main entry: ilinjinyut. Category: Size and weight.

awaliwi   noun. worthless, no good. See: yaliwi evil thing.

awarlk   noun. 1 • fruit of the Awarlk tree. Ngarrila ja Awarlk. ‘I eat Awarlk berries.’ Category: Plant food. Anth: Edible white berries.

2 • White currant. A small shrub with edible white berries. Flueggea virosa, formerly Securinega melanthesoides. Variant: Iwaidja: Awalk. Anth: Edible white fruit are ripe in the rainy season, walmatpalmat. They grow in the jungle, walmurtja. Nganymayawng mata Awarlk. ‘I see an Awarlk tree.’ Category: Trees and bushes, Medicine. Anth: Strong wood that is used for making alawi nets. Wood is burnt in the process.

awana   iv. they will go. See main entry: ke.

awarnangkat   noun. strong, hard. Category: Properties of surface. See main entry: yarnangkat. Category: Goodness.

awarntulyak   noun. long, tall. Category: Size and weight. See main entry: yarntulyak.

awara   noun. other, another. See main entry: yara. Category: Appearance.

awarakap   noun. one. See main entry: yarakap. Category: Amounts.

awat   noun. vomit. Kerawkuny awat. ‘He vomits.’ See: kerawkun vomit. Category: Secretions and substances.

awk   part. refers to a group of items or people. Awuniwu awk nukang arukin. ‘The snake might hurt that group of people.’ La kuwanala awk ja karlurri la irratat. ‘You can eat all kinds (groups) of animals and meats.’ Ngarrartayawng awk ta kurnpi atangaling. ‘We could see the groups of kurnpi trees standing there.’ See: kinnyartawkun add on to; kiwartawkunjilin mixed together; yirrk post-verbal particle, all, completive. Category: Peoples and clans.

awulingan   iv. be siblings. arrkingan We are siblings; ngatingan We (exclusive) are siblings. Kawanirtil ja awulinganut. ‘The brothers are sitting together.’ Ngeyawng ja nuyi kutingan. ‘I saw your brother.’ awulingan ‘his brother’. See: kiliga travel from, be from. Category: family, inc moieties.

Awululk   noun. place name. Category: Place names.

awulurrangkekenyjing   iv. try and take over somebody else's place. Malany naka naka muj marrik awulurrangkekenjing ngarri ngarruken ‘So they shouldn't just try and take over and be our boss.’ See: kilurrangken jump. Category: Arrangement, Peoples and clans.

awurli   interjection. o.k. See: aku o.k.. Category: Language.

awuniluriny   noun. the youngest son in a family. Awuniluriny. Warrwak imalkpanyka. Awuniluriny. Warrwak Awuniyarrungka ‘He's the youngest son. He's the one who came after (all the others).’ Awunngaluriny ‘She's the youngest daughter.’ Syn: aningurtpulmuniny. jar jaawuniluriny See: kinnyarlukpa to precede a sibling in birth order; warrwak the last person. Category: Ages.

awunnyakpinang   tv. Restrict: MA subject conceive. Awarrangungapa awunnyakpinang warranyngiw. ‘They go along and they have a child.’ Warranyngiw awunnyekpinangapa. ‘They have a child.’ Syn: kinnyatpi. Category: Reproduction.

Awunngawanpany   noun. place on North Goulburn. Category: Place names. Note: Literally 'she ate too much of them'

awunpuyukakaning   tv. encourage to fight. Wemin awulangaling awunpuyakakaning alaj yamin jita kinyimakan la yamin jita kinyimakan. ‘The others were there, egging them on. The wife of one and the wife of the other one.’ See: kawunpuyungpukpun encourage in fight. Category: Fight. Note: Also transcribed as awunpiryakakaning, awunpirrukakaning, awunpuiryakakaning, awunpuyungpukpaning

awunypinyjung   iv. this word is used when the children go off together walking a long way or fighting or playing around. Some parents might get angry and others might say awunypinyjung 'it's o.k. they're just playing'. See: kininyji feel, examine, pinch, grab, turn on equipment by pushing a button. Category: Play, perform, joke.

awurr   noun. billabong, wide stretch of water which dries up in the Dry season. Category: Flowing water.

awurrurt   noun. cooked, ripe. See main entry: yurrurt. Ant: yurgun. Category: Properties of surface.

Awuwu   noun. place name. Category: Place names.

ay   interjection. 1 • used when you can't hear or understand what someone is saying. Also used when you can't think of the next word you want to say. Also used to talk to yourself when you feel confused or have trouble doing something. Category: Language.

2 • confusion. Category: Language.

3 • surprise. See: ayu I don't know. Category: Language.

ayang   noun. kangaroo (generic term). Category: Mammals.

ayay   coverb. 1 • be hanging. Naka kili ayay ja manpurrwa. ‘The material is hanging there.’ Category: Remain stationary.

3 • float. Kinypani aya. ‘A seagull is floating in the water.’ Ja luluj kiwani aya. ‘The dog is swimming.’ Note: This can be used to refer to a person or dog swimming if they jump in off a boat. Can also be used to refer to a goanna swimming. Cannot be used for crocodiles or turtles Category: Activity manner, Motion relating to water.

3 • drift. Anmina "Yarrangung ayayga". ‘You could say "he drifted over this way."’ Category: Activity manner, Horizontal movements.

ayirrayirr   coverb. rinse out, gargle. Anmina ayirrayirr. ‘You must gargle.’ Category: Non language human voice sounds.

ayu   interjection. i don't know. Ngampiwi yuran ja kayu? Ayu. Ngampiwi yirrikpi yuran? ‘Where has older-brother gone? I don't know. Where has he gone?’ See: ay hesitation marker. Category: Language.

ayuk   noun. 1 • way of life, a law, the custom. See: iwarruj disclipine, prayer. Category: Social responsibilities and events.

2 • action. Kangpin amurl, ayuk ta anyak. ‘They do the dance moves, a little bit of action’. Category: Song and dance.